- Moving Towards Miniaturization
Consumer-electronics, automotive, and defense industries are moving more and more towards miniaturization as a means to provide more efficient products. What does this mean? Manufacturers must deliver products that do not increase cost significantly. The challenge – deliver more accurate equipment in a smaller package. Make it smaller, add more functionality, keep it cost-effective. These demands keep the device industry constantly moving forward, requiring the manufacturers to improve the capabilities of their devices to meet the requirements of the OEM’s. The trend today is moving more and more towards the use of bare die.
Years ago, Bare Die usage was driven by Military High Reliability applications where weight, size and reliability were important. Later, cars created a challenge for the designers for “under the hood” environments where the solutions required low cost components with military reliability. Designers of space constrained systems face the challenge of determining how to incorporate expanding functional need into smaller spaces in a timely and cost-effective manner. The requirements for smaller devices and higher memory are fueling the need for bare die memory solutions.
Think of what’s used today with all the many handheld devices, portable and small products, cell phones, etc. Even the washing machine, dryer and air conditioner all require small electronic components that operate in hostile environments. The products we demand are all becoming smaller and smaller but many are still subject to high heat, humidity, vibration or hostile environments. With smaller trace lengths between devices, bare die solutions enable higher frequency operation as processor and bus speeds increase. A classic example of this is the graphics card in your personal computer where both speed and integration are vital. Clearly, bare die form housed in customized packaging has become very popular.
Size, weight, reliability, performance and cost are drivers for bare die technology. With many module companies worldwide, the OEM’s are being increasingly exposed to bare die technology in one form or another. The military created the requirement that initially drove the demand. Now the consumer has taken over. With the growing need for miniaturization, improved performance and reliability, the possible applications for the use of bare die is endless. We think Bare Die is the way to go!
This week the Bare Die Blog Team is looking at what the most difficult task in buying a bare die device might be for you. We suspect that “Identifying An Alternative Device” is going to be the top choice. Of course, “All Of The Above” will be a popular answer, though it really does not highlight what is the most important.
We are looking forward to the results and will be doing our best to follow up with the people in the know. Now, get voting(and commenting too, if this one fancies you).
In the worst case the dice can actually be destroyed entirely! There are a few problems the bare die distributor is faced with, the first of which is electrical protection, the second is the physical storage. All die product must be protected from ESD or Electro static discharge as the circuit tracks could deteriorate due to excessive electro static discharge that is forced through them causing the overall performance of the dice to drop.
The ESD Association approved an ANSI standard, ANSI/ESD S20.20 covering the requirements necessary to protect electrical or electronic parts, assemblies and equipment susceptible to ESD discharge from Human Body Model discharges greater than or equal to 100 volts.
The bare die distributor working in a clean room must protect these devices from electro static discharge. Using the ANSI/ESD S20.20 standard the following listed below can help protect the dice from performance drop.
A. Personnel Safety
1. Wrist Straps shall be UL listed including a minimum of 1 Megohm current limiting resistor.
2. Ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI) should be used wherever personnel can come into
contact with line voltage.
B. ESD Protected Area (EPA) or Clean Room
1. Unless in a closed Static Shielding Bag, covered container having ESD shielding properties,
ESD Waffle Packs, ESDS (Electro Static Discharge Sensitive needs to be handled by a
2. Caution signs will make clear the existence of a clean room.
3. ESD protective workstations shall have a sign.
C. Personnel Grounding
1. All persons handling ESDS are to be grounded via a wrist strap.
1. Charges on operator’s insulative clothing can not be removed via the wrist strap.
2. ESD smocks are required to be worn in the Clean Room.
3. ESD smocks shall be via the hip to cuff cord wrist strap.
1. Floors in the clean room are recommended to be covered using and ESD Floor Wax.
F. Work Surface
1. ESD work surfaces shall be dissipative and connected to ground having 10″6 to 10″8
Ohm RTT resistance point to point.
2. ESD mats shall cover the entire work surface area.
3. ESD work surfaces shall be kept clean using only approved ESD cleaners.
G. Work Station Grounding
1. Each ESD workstation shall have a common point ground.
H. Shelving / Carts
1. Shelving or drawers used to store unpackaged ESDS in the Clean Room should have ESD
surfaces and be grounded.
1. Seating in the Clean Room should be ESD seating.
1. Ionizers shall be used to neutralize charges on isolated conductors and necessary insulators
that cannot be kept a minimum of 12″ from ESDS.
In a certified Class 10,000 Clean Room, using these processes for the inspection and handling of bare die, wafer, and packaged products the bare die distributor is able to protect the bare die from electro static discharge. By adapting to the use of the ANSI/ESD S20.20 standard the bare die distributor plays a key role in the supply chain in providing a defect free bare die product to the end user.
What’s Bare Die?How do I buy Bare Die? Unless you have been doing this for a good number of years you will quickly find out that there is a lot more involved than just searching for a Part# on the Internet. It’s especially frustrating to find out that in a world of “packaged” semiconductors that Bare Die commerce is perceived as a bother. The trick is understanding the differences between packaged parts and bare die. Then you, also, can “Buy Bare Die Like a Veteran”. The Bare Die Blog Team will help you to answer some of your questions.
First, find a trusted Bare Die supplier that can provide you with the components in die form. Their expertise and advice will help you in the buying process. You may need Certificates of Conformance, Lot Traceability, Source Control Drawings, Geometries, Specific Testing performed. It can be very confusing.
Manufacturers produce a wafer that yields the die. After testing the wafer individual die are separated from the wafer and assigned a part number and then shipped to a bare die distributor. Here, samples from a die lot are packaged to expedite Lot Acceptance testing (LAT). Additional testing is usually done through a method of Known Good Die (KGD).
At the distributors facility, the assumption is made that die that look flawless will function well. Their visual inspection techniques have made them experts in what they do with their knowledge of military inspections for bare die. They make sure that the die that you purchase looks flawless and will function well. Current die geometries must be obtained and any changes that have occurred must be forwarded to the end customer as this may not be acceptable to the customer. Often times samples are required by the end customer. Depending on the device, the distributors can usually provide the required sample. Sometimes though, the part is not available from the manufacturer in die form, or if the manufacturer agrees to provide the part, the minimum purchase quantity may be much, much higher than the end customer requires. Always keep in mind that everything is NOT available in die form.
To conclude, Bare Die is used in a broad array of industries and markets, including Aerospace, Military, Avionics, Medical Implant, Automotive, and high-end Industrial where bare die is the optimum choice for a given design. Go to your trusted Bare Die supplier to get their expertise and advice where they will help you to “Buy Bare Die Like a Veteran”.
MJ15003 Fake & Genuine
SAE International implemented a new standard in April of 2009 as the SAE International AS5553 “Counterfeit Electronic Parts; Avoidance, Detection, Mitigation and Disposition” standard. It presents solutions in addressing the counterfeit electronic parts issues across a large section of the electronics industry by requiring those who adopt it to develop and implement a counterfeit electronics control plan. It incorporated the best practices in Component Management, Supplier Management, Procurement, Inspection, Test/Evaluation Methods, and a response strategy when counterfeit electronic components are detected or suspected.
Who Needs It? Every electronics industry: Defense, Military, Aerospace, Civil & Commercial. Counterfeit electronics is prevelant in almost every segment of the electronics industry. SAE International developed the AS5553 standard to help reduce this billion dollar problem. Counterfeit electronics has been encountered by Original Component Manufacturers, Authorized Distributors, Independent Distributors, Brokers, and Government Prime/Sub Contractors. What are you doing to combat this problem? View Dangerous Fakes from Bloomberg Business Week to see the necessity of having an AS5553 standard.
Many of the electronic parts that are sold on the open market may be fake, perhaps as much as a third or possibly more, costing our industry billions of dollars per year. As the price of electronic components has increased so has the lucrative business of counterfeiting them. Failures on aerospace and military systems to the early failure of PC motherboards has produced the loss of customer confidence. Product safety, performance, and relaiblity are becoming a thing of the past.
The products affected range from transistors, diodes, integrated circuits, fuses, capacitors to dc power supplies. The list seems endless.
To say the least it is an industry wide problem that only a group effort can solve. OEM’s, Distributors, Brokers, and contract manufactures all need to be involved in solving this this difficult problem.
Buying components requires precautions in order to lower the risk of receiving counterfeit parts. Know your source and be sure that they follow stringent quality-control procedures. Can they provide warranties, certificates of conformance, or other traceable documents? Do you use visual inspection and destructive or non-destructive testing?
We are pro-active with counterfeit avoidance by being AS9120:2009 certified and adhere to the AS5553 standard. Where applicable, most components that we supply have the Original C of C and Lot traceability; many of which can be traced back to the original SCD processing.
Component users need to work with distributors to fight counterfeiting. In the short term, perhaps less emphasis on JIT and more time to verify authenticity might curb the problem.
The problem is bad. How bad? From Bloomberg Business Week check out the following:
1. Dangerous Fakes
2. Counterfeit Tech: Biggest Suspects
3. Fighting A Flood Of Counterfeit Tech Products
4. Debunking Common Myths About Counterfeits
DMSMS is an abbreviation for Diminishing Manufacturing Sources and Material Shortages. It’s the loss, or advancing loss of suppliers of items or raw material.
DMSMS or obsolescence are often used mutually. DMSMS is the lack of sources or raw materials. Obsolescence is the lack of availability due to process and design changes. An obsolete product is not needed anymore. DMSMS is motivated by financial needs forcing the technological requirement of an item out of production but not out of use. A typical example where DMSMS would pose a problem would be in the military sector. Losing a supplier because the manufacturer’s discontinues the production of a component that is used in an F-15 fighter jet can cost millions of dollars re-engineer a solution.
Depending on whether there might be an alternate supplier or not, this sistuation could endanger the capability of weapon systems or equipment.
Solutions to DMSMS include item substitutions, using trusted distributors or aftermarket suppliers, or total re-designs and replacement which can be quite costly. Depending on the choice, engineers will have to face other issues. Will the new substitute item work correctly? Will new testing be necessary?
To say the least, DMSMS can be problematic. Is Diminishing Manufacturing Sources and Material Shortages a problem for you?
Most electronic components begin with the manufacture of “wafers”. These wafers are then sawn into “die”. The die are then put into packages that the majority of customers can place them on printed circuit boards, or (PCB). Hybrid manufacturers will purchase the “die” level product and place them on a substrate
then wire bond the die to that substrate then encapsulate that substrate in a package to be mounted on a PCB.
See How They Make Wafers and Computer Chips here.