MEMS resonators are small electromechanical structures that vibrate at high frequencies. They are used for timing references, signal filtering, mass sensing, biological sensing, motion sensing, and other diverse applications.
A thyristor (/θaɪˈrɪstər/) is a solid-state semiconductor device with four layers of alternating P- and N-type materials. It acts exclusively as a bistable switch, conducting when the gate receives a current trigger, and continuing to conduct until the voltage across the device is reversed biased, or until the voltage is removed (by some other means).
A basic PCB consists of a flat sheet of insulating material and a layer of copper foil, laminated to the substrate. Chemical etching divides the copper into separate conducting lines called tracks or circuit traces, pads for connections, vias to pass connections between layers of copper, and features such as solid conductive areas for EM shielding or other purposes.