What Are The Advantages Of Using Transistors?
The key advantages that have allowed transistors to replace vacuum tubes in most applications are
no cathode heater (which produces the characteristic orange glow of tubes), reducing power consumption, eliminating delay as tube heaters warm up, and immune from cathode poisoning and depletion;
very small size and weight, reducing equipment size;
large numbers of extremely small transistors can be manufactured as a single integrated circuit;
low operating voltages compatible with batteries of only a few cells;
circuits with greater energy efficiency are usually possible. For low-power applications (e.g., voltage amplification) in particular, energy consumption can be very much less than for tubes;
complementary devices available, providing design flexibility including complementary-symmetry circuits, not possible with vacuum tubes;
very low sensitivity to mechanical shock and vibration, providing physical ruggedness and virtually eliminating shock-induced spurious signals (e.g., microphonics in audio applications);
not susceptible to breakage of a glass envelope, leakage, outgassing, and other physical damage.