What Are Supercapacitors?
Supercapacitors (SC),.comprise a family of electrochemical capacitors. Supercapacitor, sometimes called ultracapacitor is a generic term for electric double-layer capacitors (EDLC), pseudocapacitors and hybrid capacitors. They don't have a conventional solid dielectric. The capacitance value of an electrochemical capacitor is determined by two storage principles, both of which contribute to the total capacitance of the capacito.
Double-layer capacitance – Storage is achieved by separation of charge in a Helmholtz double layer at the interface between the surface of a conductor and an electrolytic solution. The distance of separation of charge in a double-layer is on the order of a few Angstroms (0.3–0.8 nm). This storage is electrostatic in origin.
Pseudocapacitance – Storage is achieved by redox reactions, electrosorbtion or intercalation on the surface of the electrode or by specifically adsorpted ionsthat results in a reversible faradaic charge-transfer. The pseudocapacitance is faradaic in origin
The ratio of the storage resulting from each principle can vary greatly, depending on electrode design and electrolyte composition. Pseudocapacitance can increase the capacitance value by as much as an order of magnitude over that of the double-layer by itself.
Supercapacitors are divided into three families, based on the design of the electrodes:
Double-layer capacitors – with carbon electrodes or derivates with much higher static double-layer capacitance than the faradaic pseudocapacitance
Pseudocapacitors – with electrodes out of metal oxides or conducting polymers with a high amount of faradaic pseudocapacitance
Hybrid capacitors – capacitors with special and asymmetric electrodes that exhibit both significant double-layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance, such as lithium-ion capacitors
Supercapacitors bridge the gap between conventional capacitors and rechargeable batteries. They have the highest available capacitance values per unit volume and the greatest energy density of all capacitors. They support up to 12,000 farads/1.2 volt with capacitance values up to 10,000 times that of electrolytic capacitors. While existing supercapacitors have energy densities that are approximately 10% of a conventional battery, their power density is generally 10 to 100 times greater. Power density is defined as the product of energy density, multiplied by the speed at which the energy is delivered to the load. The greater power density results in much shorter charge/discharge cycles than a battery is capable, and a greater tolerance for numerous charge/discharge cycles. This makes them well-suited for parallel connection with batteries, and may improve battery performance in terms of power density.
Within electrochemical capacitors, the electrolyte is the conductive connection between the two electrodes, distinguishing them from electrolytic capacitors, in which the electrolyte only forms the cathode, the second electrode.
Supercapacitors are polarized and must operate with correct polarity. Polarity is controlled by design with asymmetric electrodes, or, for symmetric electrodes, by a potential applied during the manufacturing process.
Supercapacitors support a broad spectrum of applications for power and energy requirements, including:
Low supply current during longer times for memory backup in (SRAMs) in electronic equipment
Power electronics that require very short, high current, as in the KERSsystem in Formula 1 cars
Recovery of braking energy for vehicles such as buses and trains
Supercapacitors are rarely interchangeable, especially those with higher energy densities. IEC standard 62391-1 Fixed electric double layer capacitors for use in electronic equipment identifies four application classes:
Class 1, Memory backup, discharge current in mA = 1 • C (F)
Class 2, Energy storage, discharge current in mA = 0.4 • C (F) • V (V)
Class 3, Power, discharge current in mA = 4 • C (F) • V (V)
Class 4, Instantaneous power, discharge current in mA = 40 • C (F) • V (V)
Exceptional for electronic components like capacitors are the manifold different trade or series names used for supercapacitors like: APowerCap, BestCap, BoostCap, CAP-XX, DLCAP, EneCapTen, EVerCAP, DynaCap, Faradcap, GreenCap, Goldcap, HY-CAP, Kapton capacitor, Super capacitor, SuperCap, PAS Capacitor, PowerStor, PseudoCap, Ultracapacitor making it difficult for users to classify these capacitors.